et al., Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes (Peer Reviewed)
Retrospective 313 patients, mostly critical stage and mostly requiring respiratory support. Confounding by indication likely.
Rodriguez-Nava et al., 11/5/2020, retrospective, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, median age 68.0, 8 authors.
risk of death, 5.5% lower, RR 0.94, p = 0.87, treatment 16 of 52 (30.8%), control 85 of 261 (32.6%), unadjusted.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely, excessive unadjusted differences between groups, unadjusted results with no group details.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.